Institute for
International Law and Human Rights

Constitutional Development Rule of Law

Comparison of the Authorities of the Upper and Lower Legislative Houses

Examines the relative authorities of the upper and lower legislative houses in Germany, Egypt, Nigeria, and South Africa. Considers whether the upper house should have jurisdiction equal to that of the lower house or only that legislation which is related to the regions. Addresses what different states consider “regionally related.” Examines the relative responsibilities of both houses regarding appointing executive branch and other officials as well as issues of budget construction.